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Coral Husbandry Book

Coral reefs are endangered due to a.o. pollution, over fishing, destructive fishing, coral quarrying and global warming. Within aquaria the opposite is happening: modern techniques, increasing knowledge and skills improve the quality of live coral reef displays and coral survival. Doors are opened towards coral culture and coral reef restoration.

Corals have been kept in aquariums for hundreds of years. However, only in the last few decades coral husbandry has developed as a science, and technological advances have enabled aquarists to install and maintain environmental parameters essential for keeping corals in closed systems alive and thriving.



Aquarium hobbyists have played an important part in this development. They share with scientists and public aquarium managers and aquarists an awareness of the importance to learn as much as possible about corals and apply this to the conservation of natural coral reefs.

Table of content

Section 1: Animal Husbandry and system management
Section 2: Coral exhibit design and large exhibits
Section 3: Population management
Section 4: Conservation and transportation
Section 5: Taxonomy

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Section 1 Animal Husbandry and system management

General Advances in coral husbandry in public aquaria introduction Bruce Carlson
Chapter 1. Introduction to the husbandry of corals in aquariums: A review Eric Borneman
Chapter 2. Nutrition in juvenile corals - a case study at the Rotterdam Zoo Dirk Petersen and Michaël Laterveer
Chapter 3. The CORALZOO project - preliminary results of the evaluation of different types and concentration of food on the growth of Pocillopora damicornis comparing diurnal and nocturnal feeding Silvia Lavorano, Claudia Gili, Caterina Muti, Daniela Corsino, Maura Tartuffi and Guido Gnone
Chapter 4. Effects of light and feeding on coral calcification Sylvie Tambutté and Christine Ferrier-Pagès
Chapter 5. Predators and pests of captive corals Mitch Carl
Chapter 6. Observations of a polyclad flatworm affecting acroporid corals in captivity Fernando Nosratpour
Chapter 7. The soft coral Sinularia flexibilis: potential for drug development Mohammad K. Khalesi, Rik H. Beeftink and René H. Wijffels
Chapter 8. Husbandry of azooxanthellate soft corals (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) in captivity: preliminary results Michael P. Janes
Chapter 9. Coral husbandry and long-term coral survival in the Coral Reef Exhibit at Reef  HQAquarium, Townsville, Australia Shelley L. Anthony and Séverine Thomas
Chapter 10. Abiotic filtration methods for live coral systems in public aquaria Richard Terrell Jr., Richard Klobuchar Jr. and Carrie Pratt
Chapter 11. Ecological purification in the captive reef - natural approaches to water quality management Ashley Sharp
Chapter 12. Scientific considerations on a technique of ecological purification that made possible the cultivation of reef-building corals in Monaco Jean Jaubert
Chapter 13. Current in aquaria, best way to create Ernst Pawlowsky
Chapter 14. Calcium and carbonate in closed marine aquarium systems Dieter Brockmann and Max Janse
Chapter 15. Trace elements, functions, sinks and replenishment in reef aquaria   Hans-Werner Balling, Max Janse and Piet J. Sondervan
Chapter 16. Macronutrients N P K, levels and management Ernst Pawlowsky
Chapter 17. An example of public aquaria sciences: the CORALZOOproject Ronald Osinga
Chapter 18. The role of light in coral physiology and its implications for coral husbandry Ronald Osinga, Marcel Janssen and Max Janse
Chapter 19. Environmentally tough coral species as candidates for aquarium culture Tony McEwan

Section 2: Coral exhibit design and large exhibits

Chapter 20. Introduction: Design considerations for live coral exhibits J. Charles Delbeek
Chapter 21. Tank design and aquashaping for live coral exhibits David Lazenby
Chapter 22. Impact of design-build process on the construction and functionality of a large scale live coral exhibit at the Houston Zoo: "Reef-building by design-build" Mike Concannon
Chapter 23. Sulawesi beaches and shores: A look at an unusual coral tank Mitch Carl
Chapter 24. A proposed live coral exhibit for Chester Zoo Aquarium Colin Grist
Chapter 25. An experimental prototype coral reef tank at the Steinhart Aquarium's temporary museum Bart Shepherd
Chapter 26. The Coral Reef Exhibit at Reef HQAquarium, Townsville, Australia: Technical operations and water quality Séverine Thomas and Shelley L. Anthony
Chapter 27. 80,000 liters of a live coral reef display - 7 years and counting Joe Yaiullo
Chapter 28. Designing and maintaining a large closed-system reef exhibit at the Georgia Aquarium Bruce A. Carlson, Kevin Curlee, Alistair Dove and Kimberly Hall
Chapter 29. Design and development of the Steinhart aquarium's Philippine coral reef exhibit Bart Shepherd
Chapter 30. Intensive culture of scleractinian corals and overview of the techniques used for coral reef exhibits at the aquarium of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. An assessment after 18 years of activity Pierre Gilles and Nadia Ounaïs
Chapter 31. Ecological management of a large coral reef eco-display at Burgers' Zoo Max Janse, Joep Wensing, Henri Gieling and Tom de Jongh

Section 3: Population management

Chapter 32. Introduction: Ex-situ coral population management: towards sustainability and breeding programs Dirk Petersen
Chapter 33. Mariculture of coral colonies for the public aquarium sector Shai Shafir and Baruch Rinkevich
Chapter 34. The role of sexual reproduction in captive population management - a review Dirk Petersen
Chapter 35. Coral spawning at the Birch Aquarium at Scripps: Observations on timing and behavior Fernando Nosratpour
Chapter 36. A synopsis of coral restoration genetics Iliana B. Baums
Chapter 37. Progress in sexual coral reproduction at Oceanopolis Dominique Barthelemy

Section 4: Conservation and transportation

Chapter 38. Introduction: Conservation and transportation Mike Brittsan and Rachel Jones
Chapter 39. CITES, corals and customs: The international trade in wild coral Rachel Jones
Chapter 40. Collecting and shipping live coral: Techniques, tips and headaches J. Charles Delbeek
Chapter 41. Aquacultured coral and restoration Ilze K. Berzins, Ryan Czaja, Casey Coy, Craig A. Watson, Kathy H. Kilgore, Roy P.E. Yanong, Scott Graves, Lauri MacLaughlin and Billy Causey
Chapter 42. 2nd SECORE workshop: towards the conservation of the threatened Elkhorn coral Acropora palmata Dirk Petersen, Eric Borneman, Mike Brittsan, Mary Hagedorn and Michaël Laterveer
Chapter 43. The role of public aquaria in enhancing a sustainable coral trade Nathalie Gamain
Chapter 44. Coral reefs at risk: the role of Japanese science and technology for restoration Makoto Omori
Chapter 45. Conserving the Hawaiian stony coral, Montipora dilatata (Studer, 1901): a U.S. "species of concern" J. Charles Delbeek

Section 5: Taxonomy

Chapter 46. Laboratory methods for identification of soft corals (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) Michael P. Janes
Chapter 47. Oceanic distribution ranges and conservation status of extant soft and hard reef coral genera Bert W. Hoeksema and Leendert P. van Ofwegen